Project Tag: Antioxidant


Reduction of facial wrinkles by hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane associated with reduction of free radical stress and support of matrix production by dermal fibroblasts

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on wrinkle reduction in a clinical pilot study and to elucidate specific mechanisms of action using primary human immune and dermal cell-based bioassays.
Methods: To evaluate the effects of topical application of WSEM (8%) on human skin, an open-label 8-week study was performed involving 20 healthy females between the age of 45 years and 65 years. High-resolution photography and digital analysis were used to evaluate the wrinkle depth in the facial skin areas beside the eye (crow’s feet). WSEM was tested for total antioxidant capacity and effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species by human polymorphonuclear cells. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the antioxidant response element genes Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1. Evaluation of effects on human primary dermal fibroblasts in vitro included cellular viability and production of the matrix components collagen and elastin.
Results: Topical use of a WSEM-containing facial cream for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of wrinkle depth (P<0.05). WSEM contained antioxidants and reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells in vitro. Despite lack of a quantifiable effect on Nrf2, WSEM induced the gene expression of downstream Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1 in human keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with WSEM produced more collagen and elastin than untreated cells or cells treated with dbcAMP control. The increase in collagen production was statistically significant (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The topical use of WSEM on facial skin significantly reduced the wrinkle depth. The underlying mechanisms of this effect may be related to protection from free radical damage at the cellular level and induction of several antioxidant response elements, combined with stimulation of human dermal fibroblasts to secrete high levels of matrix components.

Read More


Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and skin regenerative properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves (NAE-8®)

Abstract

Objective: The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of an Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8®), compared to an extract of A. vera gel alone (ALOE), and to an aqueous extract of N. oleander (AQ-NOE) in bioassays pertaining to dermatologic potential with respect to antioxidant protection, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytokine profiles in vitro.
Methods: Cellular antioxidant protection was evaluated in three separate bioassays: The cellular antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, protection of cellular viability and prevention of apoptosis, and protection of intracellular reduced glutathione levels, where the last two assays were performed using human primary dermal fibroblasts. Reduction of intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested using polymorphonuclear cells in the absence and presence of oxidative stress. Changes to cytokine and chemokine profiles when whole blood cells and human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to test products were determined using a 40-plex Luminex array as a method for exploring the potential cross-talk between circulating and skin-resident cells.
Results: The NAE-8® provided significantly better antioxidant protection in the CAP-e bioassay than AQ-NOE. NAE-8® and AQ-NOE both protected cellular viability and intracellular reduced glutathione, and reduced the ROS formation significantly when compared to control cells, both under inflamed and neutral culture conditions. ALOE showed minimal effect in these bioassays. In contrast to the NAE-8®, the AQ-NOE showed induction of inflammation in the whole blood cultures, as evidenced by the high induction of CD69 expression and secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines. The treatment of dermal fibroblasts with NAE-8® resulted in selective secretion of cytokines involved in collagen and hyaluronan production as well as re-epithelialization during wound healing.
Conclusion: NAE-8®, a novel component of a commercial cosmetic product, showed beneficial antioxidant protection in several cellular models, without the induction of leukocyte activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The biological efficacy of NAE-8® was unique from both ALOE and AQ-NOE.

Read More


Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of an Aqueous Cyanophyta Extract Derived from Arthrospira Platensis: Contribution to Bioactivities by the Non-Phycocyanin Aqueous Fraction.

Abstract

The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidantprotection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125-500 μg/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions.

Read More


Phenolic acids of the two major blueberry species in the US market and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Abstract

Highbush (cultivated) and lowbush (wild) are the two major blueberry species in the US market. Eight phenolic acids were detected and quantified from these two species by HPLC-MS. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in both species, with 0.44 mg/g fresh weight in lowbush blueberries and 0.13 mg/g fresh weight in highbush blueberries. Total phenolic content in lowbush blueberries is over three times higher than that of highbush blueberries. The phenolic acid mixtures representing those in the two species were prepared by using authentic standards to assess their contribution to total antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the whole berries. Neither lowbush nor highbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity of their relevant whole berries measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Both phenolic acid mixtures were able to enter the cell and showed in cell antioxidant activities from the cell based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay. Lowbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture was found to show anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at the high dose.

Read More


In vitro and ex-vivo cellular antioxidant protection and cognitive enhancing effects of an extract of Polygonum minus Huds (Lineminus™) demonstrated in a Barnes Maze animal model for memory and learning.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Polygonum minus Huds.is a culinary flavouring that is common in South East Asian cuisine and as a remedy for diverse maladies ranging from indigestion to poor eyesight. The leaves of this herb have been reported to be high in antioxidants. Flavonoids which have been associated with memory, cognition and protection against neurodegeneration were found in P. minus.

METHOD:

This study examined a P. minus aqueous extract (Lineminus™) for its antioxidant activity using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, the ex vivo Cellular Antioxidant Protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assays and for potential anticholinesterase activity in vitro. Cognitive function and learning of Lineminus™ was evaluated using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in a Barnes maze, rodent model of cognition.

RESULTS:

The extract displayed in vitro antioxidant activity with a total ORAC value of 16,964 μmole TE/gram. Cellular antioxidant protection from free radical damage using the CAP-e assay, with an IC50 of 0.58 g/L for inhibition of cellular oxidative damage, was observed. The extract inhibited cholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml with a maximum inhibition of 68%. In a rodent model of cognition using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in the Barnes maze, the extract attenuated scopolamine induced disruptions in learning at the higher dose of 100 mg/kg.

CONCLUSION:

These data shows that P. minus possesses antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and demonstrated enhanced cognition in vivo. The data suggest neuroprotective properties of the extract.

Read More


Increased antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in healthy adults consuming an acai (Euterpe oleracea) fruit-based juice.

Abstract:
The in vitro and in vivo properties of an açai based juice blend (MonaVie Active®, Salt Lake City, UT) were evaluated. Initially, a phenolic profile was determined for the beverage, and a cell-based antioxidant protection (CAP-e) assay (Honzel et al., 2008) was performed, which showed that the antioxidants in the beverage could penetrate erythrocytes and significantly protect the cells from oxidative damage in vitro (p < 0.001). Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells exposed to the beverage showed significantly reduced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also had significantly reduced migration toward three pro-inflammatory chemoattractants. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed on the beverage using 12 healthy subjects, 19-52 years of age (Jensen et al., 2008). At both one and two hours post consumption, a statistically significant increase in antioxidant capacity within subjects was noted based upon the CAP-e assay performed on serum ((p < 0.03 and (p < 0.015). Additionally, a statistically significant decrease in serum lipid peroxidation was noted using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) at two hours after consumption ((p < 0.01), together suggesting an in vivo antioxidant effect and, hence, bioavailability of the beverage.

Read More