Project Tag: Acute Study Design


A novel extract from bovine colostrum whey supports innate immune functions. II. Rapid changes in cellular immune function in humans Preventive Medicine.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate acute effects of bovine colostrum low-molecular weight fraction (CLMWF) on selected aspects of innate immune function in healthy human subjects.

METHODOLOGY:

A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial involving 12 healthy subjects, age 22-72, was conducted at NIS Labs during the year 2010. Placebo or 150 mg CLMWF was given orally. Blood was drawn immediately before and at 1 and 2h after consumption.

RESULTS:

A single dose of CLMWF, when compared to placebo, resulted in rapid increase in phagocytic activity of monocytes at 1h (P<0.12) and polymorphonuclear cells at 1h (P<0.08) and 2h (P<0.03) after consumption. Observations included increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells (P<0.05), and a transient reduction in circulating CD3(-)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells at 1h (P<0.04), returning to normal levels at 2h after consumption (P<0.96). The relative increase of NK cells from 1 to 2h after consumption was not associated with an increase in CD69 or CD25 activation markers, suggesting that new NK cells were mobilized into circulation.

CONCLUSION:

The increased phagocytic activity and rapid transient changes in NK cell numbers suggest that upon consumption, interaction of CLMWF with immune cells in the gut mucosa triggers immediate events with systemic consequences.

 

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Antioxidant bioavailability and rapid immune-modulating effects after consumption of a single acute dose of a high-metabolite yeast immunogen: results of a placebo-controlled double-blinded crossover pilot study.

The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the acute effects on circulating lymphocyte subsets, antioxidant status, and cytokine profile after consumption of EpiCor(®) (EP) (Embria Health Sciences, Ankeny, IA, USA), a dried fermentate produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a placebo-controlled randomized crossover study design with 12 healthy adult human subjects. EP contains high levels of bioavailable antioxidants and strongly activates natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. EP consumption has been shown to increase erythrocyte hematocrit levels, boost mucosal immune protection, reduce cold/flu symptoms, reduce seasonal allergy symptoms and the need for rescue medication, and increase salivary secretory immunoglobulin A levels. This warranted further study on immune effects in humans. A within-subject analysis of data collected before and at 1 and 2 hours after consumption of a single dose of 500 mg of EP versus placebo was performed. A transient reduction in circulating T and NK cell numbers was observed 2 hours post-consumption, suggesting that homing and recirculation of these cells, as part of healthy immune surveillance, were supported by EP. The increased expression of activation markers on the CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cell population was significant for CD69 at 1 hour post-consumption (CD25, P<.07; CD69, P<.05), whereas for CD25 it was significant at 2 hours after consumption (CD25, P<.03; CD69, P<.15). A rapid increase in serum interferon-γ was observed at 1 hour post-consumption (P<.07; after removal of two outlying data sets, P<.05) and may have contributed to the effects seen on NK and T cell subsets. Significant increase in serum antioxidant protection was seen 2 hours after consumption (P<.04). Thus consumption of a single 500 mg dose of EP provides a rapid and transient effect on the trafficking and activation status of specific lymphocyte subsets, as well as increased antioxidant protection.

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In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Abstract

This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB’s antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) post consumption.

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Mobilization of human CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae –related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand?

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The goal of this study was to evaluate effects on human stem cells in vitro and in vivo of an extract from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) enriched for a novel ligand for human CD62L (L-selectin).

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Ligands for CD62L provide a mechanism for stem cell mobilization in conjunction with down-regulation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor for stromal derived factor 1. Affinity immunoprecipitation was used to identify a novel ligand for CD62L from a water extract from AFA. The effects of AFA water extract on CD62L binding and CXCR4 expression was tested in vitro using human bone marrow CD34+ cells and the two progenitor cell lines, KG1a and K562. A double-blind randomized crossover study involving 12 healthy subjects evaluated the effects of consumption on stem cell mobilization in vivo.

RESULTS:

An AFA extract rich in the CD62L ligand reduced the fucoidan-mediated externalization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor on bone marrow CD34+ cells by 30% and the CD62L+ CD34+ cell line KG1A by 50% but did not alter the CXCR4 expression levels on the CD34(-) cell line K562. A transient, 18% increase in numbers of circulating CD34+ stem cells maximized 1 hour after consumption (P<.0003). When 3 noncompliant volunteers were removed from analysis, the increase in CD34+ cells was 25% (P<.0001).

CONCLUSION:

AFA water extract contains a novel ligand for CD62L. It modulates CXCR4 expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells in vitro and triggers the mobilization of CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) cells in vivo.

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